The study conducted at Wanaparthy watershed is covering parts of Wanaparthy and Mahabubnagar districts for water quality assessment based on hydrogeochemical characterization, WQI and GIS techniques. The physicochemical parameters like EC, TDS and TH are beyond permissible limits referring to WHO and BIS standards. Major anions Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, F− and cations Na+, Ca+2 are beyond permissible limit in some samples. From the Piper diagram classification, the groundwater type is Na-Cl (70.68%) type with sodium (91.38%) as cations. High Na+ concentration in the area is due to the weathering and dissolution of silicate present in soil and rock salts through evaporation and anthropogenic sources. The drainage system shows that the concentration of various parameters was higher at points or near joining to a higher-order drainage system. It might be due to the chemical reaction of rock-water interaction through recharge and infiltration processes. A geological map shows that there is a large migmatite intrusion that trend towards north-west to the south- eastern direction. This intrusion might be responsible for groundwater contamination. Water quality index (WQI) shows that 67.79% of the area has found to excellent to good water, while the remaining 32.21% is poor to very poor water, which are hotspots of pollution.
Suantak Paolalsiam Vaiphei & Rama Mohan Kurakalva & Dinesh Kumar Sahadevan
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2020) 27:45041–45062