A comprehensive study of groundwater samples from the Wanaparthy watershed (1600 km2), Telangana, India, was carried out to assess the hydrochemistry, quality, water types and potability using hydrogeochemical characterization, WQI and GIS technique. The major anions and cations are found in order of Cl− > HCO3− > SO42− > NO3− > F− and Na+ > Ca+2 > Mg+2 > K+ respectively. WQI shows 67.79% of samples pertain to the excellent to good water types reveal fit for drinking, however fluoride (18.97%), chloride (3.44%), nitrate (8.62%), sulphate (5.17%), sodium (34.48%) and calcium (1.72%) were found to above acceptable limits of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for drinking purposes. According to Piper trilinear diagram, two dominant hydrochemical facies, Na-Cl-SO4 and Ca-Na-HCO3 types, were identified. Gibbs diagram imparted the dominancy of samples in the territory are rock-water reaction and evaporation. Drainage pattern enumerated the concentration of the parameters measured are exceeding towards the downstream region, which might be due to the chemical reaction of rock-water interaction (infiltration and recharge). As the groundwater is the major source of drinking in the study area, a proper management plan has to be implemented before its quality deteriorates further.
Figure: Location map of Wanaparthy watershed a) Geographical location with sampling points; (b) Digital elevation map in 3D view.
S.P. Vaiphei, K. Rama Mohan, S. Dinesh Kumar (2020). Water quality index and GIS-based technique for assessment of groundwater quality in Wanaparthy watershed, Telangana, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10345-7