Facilities



Geophysical Observatories

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1 GPS (HYDE)

Established in 1995, contributing data to IGS

2 Seismological (HYB)

Established in 1967, contributing data to ISC, Very Broad Band Geoscope (300s-20Hz), Benioff & Press-Ewing Seismometers

3 Geomagnetic (HYB) Established in 1964, contributing data to INTERMAGNET, Vector and Scalar continuous data and weekly absolute observations, Fluxgate Magnetometer (digital-0.1 nT), La Cour Magnetometer (analog- 1 nT), Declination – Inclination Magnetometer – 0.5 nT
4 Absolute Gravity Established in 2003 FG-5 Absolute Gravimeter for µGal accuracy
5 Geothermal Established in 2009? Facilities for measurement of air temperature., relative humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed and direction and subsurface temperature variation up to ~ 30m
6 Antarctica (Seismology, GPS)

To be updated

Observation Networks

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1 Seismological Broad band Seismometers (120s-50Hz) operating several networks: Himalaya, Indo-Gangetic Plains, Peninsular Shield, NE India and Koyna more than 100 Seismograph units linked with VSAT connectivity.
2 GPS NW and Central Himalaya, Indo-Burmese Arc, Shillong Plateau, Andaman-Nicobar Islands, Peninsular Shield
3 Geomagnetic 6 Equatorial sites in Lakshadweep, Kanyakumari, Andaman-Nicobar Islands

Equipment

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1 Airborne Heli-borne Magnetic, Radiometry, Time/Frequency Domain EM systems
2 Shallow Surface 3D Seismic Data Acquisition System with Mini vibrator, IP and frequency/time domain EM equipment for near surface imaging, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), ERT
3 Ocean Bottom Seismometer To be updated
4 Broadband MT

MT systems to record signals from 1000 to 0.00001 Hz covering AMT, MT and LMT range of frequencies, facilities for marine MT studies, deep resistivity units, (Zonge probes, 10-20000 Wm)

For crustal conductivity imaging

5 Broadband Geophone?

Over 100 seismic units (Broadband/Short period) using RF telemetry, 3D Cable telemetry systems & Standalone 3C seismic units

Crust and Upper Mantle velocity structure

6 Relative gravimeters and magnetometers Crust and Upper Mantle desnity and susceptibility structure
7 Borehole logging

Gamma, density, sonic, caliper, resistivity, ATV, SP, Porosity

Geophysical Laboratories

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1 Paleomagnetic
1b. KAPPA BRIDGE MFK-1A:

The MFK-1A Kappa Bridge is probably the most sensitive commercially available laboratory instruments for measuring magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility AMS). The Kappa Bridge has the following features:

  • High sensitivity.
  • Automatic zeroing over the entire measuring range.
  • Automatic compensation of both real and imaginary susceptibility components.
  • Auto-ranging. Measuring at three different frequencies

Measuring of in-phase and relative change of out-of -phase component.

  • Slowly spinning specimen.
  • Quick AMS measurement.
  • Automated field variation measurement
  • Full control by computer. Sophisticated hardware and software diagnostics.

The Kappa bridge apparatus consists of the Pick-Up Unit, Control Unit and Computer. In principle the instrument represents a precision fully automatic inductivity bridge. It is equipped with automatic zeroing system and automatic compensation of the thermal drift of the bridge unbalance as well as automatic switching appropriate measuring range. Special diagnostics was embedded in MFK1 Kappa bridge, which monitors important processes during measurement with MFK1.

 

2 Paleomagnetic
1a. DUAL SPEED SPINNER MAGNETOMETER (Model JR-6)

The world's most sensitive and accurate instruments for measurement of remanent magnetization (NRM) of rocks based on classical (non-cryogenic) design. The new JR-6 feature two rotation speeds - the higher one enabling the maximum sensitivity to be reached, and the lower one enabling the measurement of soft sediment specimens. These instruments enable measurement of even very weakly magnetic sedimentary rocks including limestone.

The instruments consist of a spinner/pickup unit and a measurement control unit. All functions are microprocessor controlled, including digital filtration of the signal, control and test of the speed of specimen rotation, and execution of automatic tests for erroneous conditions. The measurement process is fully controlled from a computer.

The instruments operate by rotating a rock specimen at a constant angular speed in the pick-up unit inside a pair of Helmholtz coils. Inside the coils an AC voltage is induced whose amplitude and phase depend on the magnitude and direction of the remanent magnetization vector

3 Geothermics
  • Steady-state apparatus (thermal conductivity meter, QL-10C@ANTER)
  • Schematic diagram of stack, Sample should be cylindrical shape with diameter 2.54 cm and height between 1.5 cm
  • Water circulator for maintaining lower plate temperature
  • Calibration curve five reference materials are used for the calibration. These are stainless steel 304L, Fused silica (Quartz) and Pyrex 7740 of three different thicknesses

In Heat flow division, we have steady-state thermal conductivity meter (QL-10 C @ ANTER made) that can measure thermal conductivity of samples at room temperature (Figure 1a) A constant temperature difference across the stack (Figure 2b) is maintained by keeping temperatures in the upper plate at 45°C and lower plate at 5°C, using the heater on the top and a water circulator at the bottom (Figure 2c). To prevent heat loss to the surroundings, the stack is wrapped with thermal insulation material and the whole system is enclosed within an insulated housing Before measuring the thermal conductivity of samples, Thermal conductivity meter needs to be calibrated using reference specimens A typical calibration curve is shown in Figure 2d Measurements are taken after the stack reaches in steady-state condition. Reproducibility of the measurement is ±5%

4 Geothermics

2a. Radio-elemental gamma ray spectrometer

(a)Lead shield containing Nal  (Tl) crystal detector  (5 inches  diameter and 6 inches height), Photomultiplier tube and  Multichannel analyser along with voltage unit (b) Place for keeping sample over gamma–ray  crystal detector (c) Gamma-ray spectrum showing Region of interest (ROI)  for thorium (Th232)  potassium (K40) and uranium (U235)

Low-level counting gamma-ray spectrometric laboratory set of (Figure 1a). Concentration of
Thorium (Th), Uranium (U) and potassium (K) in samples can be measured with this set-up. Standards (Th, U, K) and background measurements are carried out for calibration of the apparatus and for reducing background effect, respectively

Rock samples needs to prepare by breaking in to small chips of about 5-10 mm and filled into cylindrical canister that can hold about 400 g (Figure 1b) for getting the Th, K and U Concentrations three energy windows are chosen (also known as region of interst, ROI) that are centred around the three peaks (0.91 MeV, 1.46 MeV and 1.76 MeV (Figure 1c)

2b Steady State Thermal Conductivity meter

  • Steady-state apparatus (thermal conductivity meter, QL-10C@ANTER)
  • Schematic diagram of stack, Sample should be cylindrical shape with diameter 2.54 cm and height between 1.5 cm
  • Water circulator for maintaining lower plate temperature
  • Calibration curve five reference materials are used for the calibration. These are stainless steel 304L, Fused silica (Quartz) and Pyrex 7740 of three different thicknesses

In Heat flow division, we have steady-state thermal conductivity meter (QL-10 C @ ANTER made) that can measure thermal conductivity of samples at room temperature (Figure 1a) A constant temperature difference across the stack (Figure 2b) is maintained by keeping temperatures in the upper plate at 45°C and lower plate at 5°C, using the heater on the top and a water circulator at the bottom (Figure 2c). To prevent heat loss to the surroundings, the stack is wrapped with thermal insulation material and the whole system is enclosed within an insulated housing Before measuring the thermal conductivity of samples, Thermal conductivity meter needs to be calibrated using reference specimens A typical calibration curve is shown in Figure 2d Measurements are taken after the stack reaches in steady-state condition. Reproducibility of the measurement is ±5%

2c Heat Flow
Meter

(a)Steady –state apparatus (guarded heat flow meter, DTC-300@TA
(b)Schematic diagram of stack, Sample should be cylindrical shape with diameter 5.08 cm and   height between 1.5 to 2.5cm
(c)Calibration curves in the temperature range 50-300 °C  using five  standard samples (according to ASTM  E1530 standards)  Thickness (in mim) of the standards are given in parentheses

In Heat flow division, we have steady-state thermal conductivity meter DTC -300@ TA (Figure 3a)
That can measure thermal conductivity of samples between -20°C  and 300 °C A constant temperature  difference  across the stack (Figure 3b) is maintained by upper and lower heater, Insulating  fumace guard is provided for maintaining sample  in require temperature . Before measuring the thermal  conductivity of samples , thermal conductivity meter needs to be calibrated using reference  specimens for the required temperature range, A typical calibration curve is shown  in Figure 2d. Measurements  are recorded after the stack reaches steady-state  condition, Reproducibility of the measurement is ±8%

Rock Mechanics

To be updated

 

GIS

To be updated

 

 

Geochemistry

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1 High Resolution – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HR-ICPMS)

Geoscientific applications:

  • Trace elements and isotope geochemistry
  • Geochronology (U-Pb; Hf-Lu)
  • Mineral exploration (Ni-Cu-PGE&Au)
  • Mineral Scale Analysis for Petrogenetic  modeling
  • Environmental Geochemical studies (Speciation)
  • Catering the needs of academic and R&D Institutes across the country over three decades.
2 Axias mAX 4 kW Sequential Wavelength Dispersive- X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (WD-XRF)

X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is a widely used method for the bulk chemical analysis of rocks, soils and sediments. The primary advantage of the method is that it is non-destructive and many elements can be analyzed in rapid succession without different sample preparation for each element. Elemental composition for inorganic constituents can be determined using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. 
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry can be effectively used to measure major and trace elements (Si, Al, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, P, S, As, Ba, Cd, Se, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, U, Th, V, Zn and Zr) in rocks, soils and sediments from few ppm to % level. 

3 Scanning Electron Microscope – Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS)

Geoscientific applications:
  
  • High Resolution imaging system
  • Qualitative  Chemical Composition and mineral Characterization ,
  •  Identification of rare mineral phases,
  •  Understanding the inter- mineral relationship
  •  Capability of  SE/BSE/CL Elemental Maps at different scales

4 Sulphur Analyzer

used for determination of Sulfur concentration in rocks, minerals, ores and other geological materials. This system can determine Sulphur as low as 1 ppm in rock samples.

5 Thin Section Facility

The rock cutting section is equipped with different cutting, grinding (Buehler make Lapro and Petrothin, Struers make Discoplan-TS) and polishing (Buehler make Vector) machines to prepare high quality thin sections.

6 Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) (Baddeleyite Pb-Pb)

Geoscientific applications:

• High Precision whole rock/mineral geochronology    
• Baddeleyite  Pb-Pb age dating technique
•  Useful for other Isotopic measurements, High Resolution ages will be obtained from this technique

Geochronology & Isotope Studies

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1 Electron Probe Micro Analyser (EPMA) Cameca SX100 EPMA

Principle: 

EPMA works by bombarding a micro-volume of a sample with a focused electron beam (typical energy = 5-30 keV and size = 1-50 m) and collecting the X-ray photons thereby induced and emitted by the various elemental species. As the wavelengths of these X-rays are characteristic of the emitting species, the sample composition can be easily identified by recording EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) and WDS spectra (Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy). WDS spectrometers are based on the Bragg's law and use various moveable, shaped monocrystals as monochromators.

Applications in Earth and Planetary Sciences:

Electron Probe Micro Analyzer is used for localized (<1mm), precise elemental quantification and mapping of mineral phases between 100 wt. % and a few ppm. Used mostly in Mineralogy, Petrography, Geocrhonology (monazie, zircon, uraninite dating).
Applications in Material Sciences:
Used mostly in Metallurgy (coatings and multilayers, segregation, corrosion, contamination, precipitates, light elements), Ceramics and Glasses (composition of bulk and inclusions, diffusion), Composite materials (interface, inclusions), Catalysis etc

Environmental sciences for analyzing traces of contamination and particle analysis as well as inBiological Sciences for imaging and quantification across the cross-sections of materials like tooth, shells, scales, bones etc.

2 Multi Collector – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC – ICPMS) Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS)

The MC-ICPMS is a state-of-the-art double focusing mass spectrometer, employing a high efficiency ICP-source, variable dispersion ion optics and a Multi-collector system with 12-Faraday collectors and 3-dynode multipliers. Together with other specialized peripherals such as an automatic sample changer and a desolvating nebulizer.

The LAM-MC-ICPMS allows isotopic ratio measurements of both solutions and solids.  The systems have been calibrated and performance tested. A 450 Sq. ft. CLASS 10000 clean room with workstations providing low-contamination for sample processing is being organized. Currently both radiogenic (Sr-Nd-Hf) and stable isotopic measurements (Fe-Mg-Si-Cr-Cu) are being routinely carried out in the laboratory.

  1. InsituU-Pb dating of zircons and precise geochronology of important rock           formations of the Indian shied; implications to crust        evolution, and economic        geology.
  2. Hf isotopic compositions in zircons and ultramafic – mafic rocks with        implications to crust-  mantle dynamics and evolution of the Indian shield         through its >3.5 billion year geologic history and the regional metallogeny.
  3. Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf - Isotopic characterization of mafic - ultramafic rocks from             the Carlsberg and Central Indian Ridge systems and the Andaman back arc            basin, understanding magmatism and geodynamic processes at the Indian        plate margins.
  4. Isotopic studies on Ocean sediments, particulates and waters: implications to        present and past climates and surface processes.
  5. Geochronology and Isotopic systematics of mantle xenoliths in Indian         diamond          bearing kimberlites: insights into the deep mantle and diamond         exploration.
  6. Isotopic compositions of elements such as Fe, Cr, Cu and Zn to understand        the genetic controls of Indian base metal deposits.  
  7. To initiate Fe isotopic studies with implications to bio-geochemical processes   and palaeoclimates.
3 Powder X Ray Diffraction (PXRD) Bruker D8 Advance with Cryostage

The available Bruker PXRD model is D 8 Advance with LYNXYE detector. It’s a rugged, high resolution, floor mounted, modular, multi-functional, state of the art technology, true plug and play designed research grade XRD with high precision alignment using LYNXYE detector. The PXRD system will be utilized for analysing samples of powder nature in a variety of multidisciplinary subjects like material sciences, metallurgy and in particular for the Geological Applications. The Structural & thermal stability of gas hydrates is an important aspect and PXRD is the tool to elucidate structural complexities of gas hydrates, which are stable under cryo temperatures at ambient pressure conditions. The PXRD coupled with cryostage (TTK450) is a unique facility for crystallographic structural analysis of gas hydrate samples synthesized. The Diffraction data may be processed by automated 'search-match' software which makes use of the International Centre for Diffraction Data PDF-4+ database. Quantitative phase a
Applications:
Geological Sciences
Pharmaceutical
Nano and Material Science
Forensic Studies
Glass industry (texture, crystallite, crystallinity
Phase transitions’
Gas hydrate studies

4 Microbiology Laboratory A state of art microbiology lab is engaged in microbial prospecting of hydrocarbons. The propane and butane oxidizing bacteria isolated, identified and enumerated in the investigated soil samples are used as markers to relate sub-surface hydrocarbon accumulations
5 Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (ED-XRF) EDXRF (Model Epsilon 5 with liquid purge attachment

Principal: In EDXRF spectrometers, all of the elements in the sample are excited simultaneously, and an energy dispersive detector in combination with a multi-channel analyser is used to simultaneously collect the fluorescence radiation emitted from the sample and then separate the different energies of the characteristic radiation from each of the different sample elements.
EDXRF is a powerful technique which can be used for the analysis of solids (Be – U) and liquids (Na-U) of unknown materials. Within a few minutes’ samples can be well characterized. For industrial customers, their application can be setup to work in turn key operation suitable for process workers to test samples and produce good analytical results. The principal advantages of EDXRF systems are their simplicity, fast operation, lack of moving parts, and high source efficiency
Applications
Pharmaceuticals
Mining, Industrial Materials
Cement
Metals
Multi-Layer Analysis

6 Elementar Liqui TOC Total organic carbon analyzer

for evaluating the total organic and inorganic carbon in soils, sediments, rock and water samples.

7 Rock Eval Pyrolysis (Vinci) Rock Eval Pyrolysis is an instrument of choice for petroleum industry for the evaluation of source rock parameters such as total organic matter, thermal maturity, oxygen and hydrogen index etc.
8 Gas Bench Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (GB-IRMS) for the determination of C and O isotope ratios on carbonate rocks, O and H isotopes on water samples etc
9 Gas Chromatograph-Combustion- Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS) for the determination of compound specific Carbon isotope ratios of hydrocarbon gases.
10 Flash Elemental Analyzer- Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) for the determination of Carbon and Nitrogen isotopes from kerogen, crude oils, saturates and aromatic fractions, sediments etc.
11 Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer- Mass Spectrometer (Varian 320 GC-MS-MS) GC-MS-MS is used to identify, quantify and elucidate structures of complex organic compounds such as sedimentary biomarkers present in crude oils, source rocks and sediments.
12 Buchi SE 914 Speed Extractor and Multi Vapour (Organic Matter Extractor) It used for the extraction of organic matter from soil/sediment/ source rock for GC and GC-MS-MS analysis.
13 Kiel IV – MAT 253 Mass Spectrometer Kiel IV Carbonate device coupled to MAT-253 mass spectrometer performs analysis of carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonates from stalagmite, foraminifera, corals etc. for paleoclimate reconstruction studies.
14 Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (WDXRE)

For the bulk chemical analysis of rocks, soils and sediments,
• The method non-distractive and many elements can be analgised in rapid succession   without different sample preparation for each element. 
 
             Geoscientific applications:
             • Geochemistry including Environmental Studi
             • Major elements (Si, Al, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, P, S)
             • Trace and Heavy Elements (As, Ba,Cd, Se, Co,Cu,Mo, Ni, Pb,Rb,Sr,U, Th,V,Zn, and Zr,)

15 Gas Chromatograph(GC)

GC lab facility consists of 2 Varian make gas chromatographs equipped with flame ionization detector. GC is a separation technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of light gaseous hydrocarbons, whole oil and source rock extracts.

Hydrogeochemistry

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1 Dual-View Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES)

Model: Optima 4300 DV
Principle: It is an analytical technique useful for the detection of trace elements. ICP, abbreviation for Inductively Coupled Plasma, is one method of optical emission spectrometry. When plasma energy is given to an analysis sample from outside, the component elements (atoms) are excited. When the excited atoms return to low energy position, emission rays (spectrum rays) are released and the emission rays that correspond to the photon wavelength are measured.

Applications:

ICP-OES include the determination of metals in water samples, arsenic in food, and trace elements bound to proteins. ICP-AES is often used for analysis of trace elements in soil, and it is for that reason it is often used in forensics to ascertain the origin of soil samples found at crime scenes or on victims etc.

2 Ion Chromatograph

Model: 882 Compact IC plus with 863 Compact Auto sampler with Conductivity, UV-Vis and VA Detectors.

Principle:

Ion Chromatography is a process that allows the separation of ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger. Exchange of ions is the basic principle in this type of Chromatography. In this process two types of exchangers i.e., cationic and anionic exchangers can be used Applications: Ion Chromatograph can be frequently used for determination of either anions (F-, NO3-, Cl-,PO43-,SO42-) or cations (Li+,Na+,K+,Mg2+,Ca2+) in single analysis. It is also useful for the determination of some transition elements and organic acids in environmental water samples.

3 Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) Jasco 650

Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared (NIR)) ranges. The absorption in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules undergo electronic transitions.

Application of the Instruments

This instrument works on the principle Beer-Lambert law states that the absorbance of a solution is directly proportional to the concentration of the absorbing species in the solution and the path length. Thus, for a fixed path length, UV/Vis spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of the absorber in a solution. It is necessary to know how quickly the absorbance changes with concentration. This can be taken from references or more accurately, determined from a calibration curve.

4 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer

TOC has been recognized as an analytic technique to measure water quality during the drinking water purification process. TOC provides an important role in quantifying the amount of NOM in the water source. TOC detection is an important measurement because of the effects it may have on the environment, human health, and manufacturing processes.

Application of the Instruments

It is very important in detecting contaminants in drinking water, cooling water, water used in semiconductor manufacturing, and water for pharmaceutical use. Analysis may be made either as an online continuous measurement or a lab-based measurement. TOC is a highly sensitive, non-specific measurement of all organics present in a sample. It, therefore, can be used to regulate the organic chemical discharge to the environment in a manufacturing plant. In addition, low TOC can confirm the absence of potentially harmful organic chemicals in water used to manufacture pharmaceutical products

5 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Extractor

Waste samples contain non-volatile or semi-volatile substances or metals, using Hazardous Waste Filtration System for separation, extraction, and filtration can be done.  This method was approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the system is designed specifically for Toxicity Test and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Application of the Instruments

  • Separates solid and liquid phases of waste samples 
  • Contains interior holder with PTFE coating to prevent heavy metal
    contamination 
  • Allows easy introduction of bulky samples through wide entry port and removable top plate 
  • Disassembles for easy cleaning
6 Liquid Scintillation System (for 14C dating) Wallac Quantulus, 1220 Ultra low level

Low Level Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer is utilized for measurement of alpha (α), beta (β), activates of environmental radioisotopes such as tritium, radiocarbon, prosperous-32, radon-222 etc. The spectrometer in our lab is primarily utilized for radiocarbon dating of inorganic (groundwater) and organic (charcoal, wood, peat, shells etc.) material for age dating. The age dating limits of the system in our lab is up to 40,000 yr BP.
The instrument is used for groundwater age determination and dating of paleo-seismic events.

7 Isotope Ration Mass spectrometer Model: Isoprime & JB 202

The Dual Inlet Isotope Ration Mass spectrometer is capable of measuring stable isotopes of Oxygen-18(18O), Deuterium (2H), carbon-13, Sulpher-34 and Nitrogen -15. The present IRMS is being used for analyses of 18O and Deuterium in natural waters. The system has an automated liquid handler which accommodates sixty water samples at a time. The system is fully automated right from gas (H2 or CO2) filling into the water samples vials to analyses of 18O/D

The system is being used mainly for hydrology studies oriented to address present day or paleo-groundwater recharge, aquifer behaviors in space and time, paleoclimatic signatures in groundwater, relation between surface water and groundwater, coastal aquifer studies etc.

8 Automated TL/OSL Reader with Single Grain attachment Model : RISO, TL/OSL - DA-15
  • It can measure both thermo luminescence and optically stimulated   luminescence from multiple as well as single grains.   
  • It allows up to 48 samples to be (i) individually heated to any temperature between room temperature and 700°C, (ii) individually irradiated by radioactive beta (90Sr) source, and iii) optically stimulated using various light sources like LEDs.                                                                                                  

Application of the Instrument: Dating of the Quaternary sediments for the Geological and Archaeological applications

9 Headspace Gas Chromatograph -Mass Spectrometer (HS-GC-MS)

Model: Clarus 500 GC, Clarus 500 MS with Auto sampler and Turbo Matrix HS 40
The Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument separates chemical mixtures (the GC component) and identifies the components at a molecular level (the MS component). It is one of the most accurate tools for analyzing environmental samples. The GC works on the principle that a mixture will separate into individual substances when heated. The heated gases are carried through a column with an inert gas (such as helium). As the separated substances emerge from the column opening, they flow into the MS. Mass spectrometry identifies compounds by the mass of the analyte moleculeby standard MS Libraries such as NIST and Wiley that contain more than 200,000 mass spectra of organic compound.
Applications:
Organic pollutants like Pesticides, VOCs, PAHs, Phenols, and PCBs in soil, sediment, surface and groundwater samples can be determined with adopting suitable sample preparation procedures. The Headspace sample-handling devices integrated with the GC which provides solutions for applications such as environmental analysis.

10 Misc. Techniques

pH, EC, TDS
Dissolved Oxygen, BOD, COD
Total Hardness
Carbonates, Bicarbonates.

Gas Hydrates

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1 Laser Raman Spectroscopy To be updated
2 Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) To be updated